At the onset of nutrient limitation, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesizes glycogen to serve as a carbon and energy reserve. We undertook a systematic survey for the genes that affect glycogen accumulation by taking advantage of the strain deletion set generated by the Saccharomyces Genome Deletion Project. The strain collection analyzed contained some 4600 diploid homozygous null deletants, representing approximately 88% of all viable haploid disruptants. We identified 324 strains with low and 242 with elevated glycogen stores, accounting for 12.4% of the genes analyzed. The screen was validated by the identification of many of the genes known already to influence glycogen accumulation. Many of the mutants could be placed into coherent families. For example, 195 or 60% of the hypoaccumulators carry mutations linked to respiratory function, a class of mutants well known to be defective in glycogen storage. The second largest group consists of approximately 60 genes involved in vesicular trafficking and vacuolar function, including genes encoding 13 of 17 proteins involved in the structure or assembly of the vacuolar ATPase. These data are consistent with our recent findings that the process of autophagy has a significant impact on glycogen storage (Wang, Z., Wilson, W. A., Fujino, M. A., and Roach, P. J. (2001) Antagonistic controls of autophagy and glycogen accumulation by Snf1p, the yeast homolog of AMP-activated protein kinase, and the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85p. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 5742-5752). Autophagy delivers glycogen to the vacuole, and we propose that the impaired vacuolar function associated with ATPase mutants (vma10 or vma22) results in reduced degradation and subsequent hyperaccumulation of glycogen.