Extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from coca leaves was performed by focused microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE). Cocaine extraction was optimised with respect to the nature of the extracting solvent, the particle size distribution, the moisture of the sample, the applied microwave power and the radiation time. A central composite design was used to optimise the two latter parameters and to assess the robustness of the extraction method around the best conditions. FMAE generated extracts similar to those obtained by conventional solid-liquid extraction but in a more efficient manner, i.e. 30 s were sufficient to extract cocaine quantitatively from leaves. Analyses of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in coca leaves was carried out by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS for peak identification, as well as by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection.