Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) is a rare entity that occurs in patients with long-standing type 1 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We describe DMI occurring on an average of 5 months after SPK in four patients with IDDM and end stage renal disease (ESRD). These patients had evidence of other long-term diabetic complications including retinopathy and neuropathy, as well as microangiopathy and hypercoagulability, both of which are pre-disposing factors for DMI. The etiology of DMI is not well understood. Despite establishment of normoglycemia after kidney-pancreas transplantation, DMI may occur as a result of tissue damage/fragility secondary to the pre-existing long-term labile glycemic control and hypertension. This may be exacerbated by the pro-coagulant effects of the calcineurin-inhibitors and the use of steroids as part of the immunosuppressive regimen.