Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine: An Appropriate First-Line Alternative for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Ghanaian Children Under 5 Years of Age

Trop Med Int Health. 2002 Jul;7(7):577-83. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00910.x.

Abstract

Objective: To assess whether chloroquine (CQ) still is an appropriate first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ghana and whether sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) could be a good alternative.

Method: The parasitological, clinical and haematological responses to CQ and SP were studied in children < 5 years of age according to a modified WHO 28-day in vivo protocol. A total of 142 children attending the outpatients department meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to the CQ (n=72) or SP (n=70) group.

Results: In the CQ group, 15 children (20.8%) exhibited early clinical failure (within 3 days) compared with only 1 (1.4%) in the SP group (P < 0.01). The clinical failure rate before day 14 (early treatment failure plus late treatment failure before day 14) also showed a marked advantage in favour of the SP group (1.4 against 29.2%). The median time to clinical failure was 11.5 days in the CQ group and 26 days in the SP group (P < 0.01). Of the 72 children treated with CQ, 9 (12.5%) had RIII resistance and 19 (26.4%) had RII resistance. A total of 36 (50.0%) were sensitive to CQ. From the 70 children treated with SP, none had RIII or RII resistance. There was no difference in haematological response between the two treatment groups.

Conclusion: Although there is little concordance on when to change treatment policy, the high resistance to CQ in this study supports the change to another first-line drug for children under 5 years of age. SP seems to be a good alternative, although a high RII and RIII resistance against this drug has already been reported in the coastal zones of Ghana.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chloroquine / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Resistance
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Ghana
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Malaria, Falciparum / diagnosis
  • Malaria, Falciparum / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Outpatients / statistics & numerical data
  • Pyrimethamine / therapeutic use*
  • Sulfadoxine / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Failure
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Antimalarials
  • Drug Combinations
  • fanasil, pyrimethamine drug combination
  • Sulfadoxine
  • Chloroquine
  • Pyrimethamine