Proteins encoded by Polycomb and Trithorax-group (Pc-G and Trx-G) genes regulate developmental fates by maintaining or repressing HOX gene expression, respectively. In a search for candidate myeloid leukemia tumor suppressor genes from a approximately 2.5 Mb commonly-deleted segment within chromosome band 7q22, we identified a novel human Trithorax (Trx) family member named MLL5. Trx-G genes encode proteins that modulate transcriptional programs through protein-protein interactions that are mediated by PHD and SET domains, and by binding to DNA via A-T hooks and methyltransferase homology motifs. MLL5 is a homolog of the Drosophila gene CG9007; it encodes a 6.5 kb mRNA that is expressed widely. MLL5 includes a SET domain and a single PHD finger, but lacks A-T hooks and methyltransferase homology domains that are found in MLL. The leukemia cell line RCV-ACV-A carries a heterozygous missense mutation within the PHD domain; however, no mutations within the MLL5 coding region were detected in primary leukemias. MLL5 is a novel mammalian Trx-G gene that might modulate transcription by protein association.