Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) remains a difficult management problem despite advances in vitreoretinal surgery. There is still a significant incidence of PVR in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and other forms of retinal disease. Surgery for PVR now has a high anatomical success rate although visual results are often disappointing. The use of adjunctive treatments to prevent cellular proliferation holds promise for the prevention of PVR or recurrences after surgery. Control of proliferation and strategies aimed at improving visual outcome are important areas of future research in PVR and other forms of retinal disease. Studies of the intraretinal and peri-retinal pathology of PVR have demonstrated characteristic changes which may have a significant influence on visual outcome and surgical management.