Feasibility study for real time three dimensional Doppler intracardiac echocardiography

Ultrason Imaging. 2002 Jan;24(1):36-46. doi: 10.1177/016173460202400104.


Using catheter-mounted two-dimensional array transducers, we have obtained real-time three-dimensional color flow and spectral Doppler ultrasound images in phantoms. We have constructed several transducers operating at 5 MHz with up to 137 channels inside a 12 French catheter lumen. The transducer configuration may be side scanning or beveled with respect to the long axis of the catheter lumen. We have also included six electrodes to acquire simultaneous electrocardiograms. We have measured Doppler signals in two phantoms, a string phantom and a pulsatile flow phantom. Using an open chest sheep model, we inserted the catheter into the cardiac chambers to study the utility of in vivo 3D intracardiac Doppler echocardiography.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Echocardiography, Doppler*
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Sheep
  • Transducers