Hepatitis C-associated liver failure is the most common indication for liver transplantation and recurs nearly universally following transplantation. Histological evidence of recurrence is apparent in approximately 50% of HCV-infected recipients in the first postoperative year. Approximately 10% of HCV-infected recipients will die or lose their allograft secondary to hepatitis C-associated allograft failure in the medium term. While the choice of calcineurin inhibitor and/or the use of azathioprine have not been clearly shown to affect histological recurrence of hepatitis C or the frequency of rejection in hepatitis C-infected recipients, cumulative exposure to corticosteroids is associated with increased mortality, higher levels of HCV viremia and more severe histological recurrence. In contrast to nonhepatitis C-infected recipients, treatment for acute cellular rejection is associated with attenuated patient survival among recipients with hepatitis C. The development of steroid-resistant rejection is associated with a greater than five-fold increased risk of mortality in HCV-infected liver transplant recipients. In lieu of large studies in a post-transplant population therapy with pegylated interferon (+/- ribavirin) should be considered in recipients with histologically apparent recurrence of hepatitis C before total bilirubin exceeds 3 mg/dL. The role of hepatitis C immunoglobulin and new immunosuppression agents in the management of post-transplant hepatitis C infection is still evolving. Overall, HCV-infected recipients who undergo retransplantation experience 5-year patient and graft survival rates that are similar to recipients undergoing retransplantation who are not HCV-infected.