Introduction: innate recognition of bacteria and protozoan parasites

Microbes Infect. 2002 Jul;4(9):883-6. doi: 10.1016/s1286-4579(02)01625-8.


Major advances have recently been achieved in the area of microbial recognition by the innate immune system. In this Forum, we discuss important issues related to innate recognition of bacteria and protozoan parasites. In particular, we highlight the structural characterization of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs); the definition of the receptors required for recognition of PAMPs, especially the Toll-like receptors (TLRs); the signaling pathways triggered by PAMPs/PAMPs receptor interaction; and the functional consequences of these interactions for pathogenesis during microbial infection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / immunology*
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Eukaryota / immunology*
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositols
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Infections / immunology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology
  • Parasites / immunology*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / immunology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptors


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositols
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Toll-Like Receptors