Protein kinase B (Akt) plays a central role in cellular regulation, although many of the physiologically relevant substrates for the kinase remain to be identified. In this study, we have isolated a protein from primary epididymal adipocytes with an apparent molecular weight of 125,000. This protein exhibited immunoreactivity, in an insulin-dependent manner, with a phosphospecific antibody raised against the protein kinase B substrate consensus sequence RXRXX(pS/pT) as well as a phosphospecific antibody that recognizes serine 21/9 of GSK-3alpha/beta. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed the protein to be ATP-citrate lyase, suggesting that the two phosphospecific antibodies recognize phosphoserine 454, a previously reported insulin- and isoproterenol-stimulated ATP-citrate lyase phosphorylation site. Indeed, both insulin and isoproterenol stimulated the phosphorylation of this protein on the site recognized by the phosphospecific antibodies in a wortmannin-sensitive and -insensitive manner, respectively. In addition, transient expression of a constitutively active protein kinase B in primary adipocytes mimicked the effect of insulin on ATP-citrate lyase phosphorylation. Furthermore, ATP-citrate lyase was phosphorylated in vitro by recombinant protein kinase B on the same site. Taken together, these results demonstrate that serine 454 of ATP-citrate lyase is a novel and major in vivo substrate for protein kinase B.