We examined the diurnal variation in serum concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (serum CrossLaps, sCTx) under various conditions. The studies included a total of 100 individuals. Blood samples were collected every 3 h over 27 h. sCTx levels varied over the 24 h with a maximum at about 05:00 in the morning and a minimum of about 14:00 in the afternoon. The variation had a magnitude of about +/-40% around the 24 h mean and was similar in premenopausal and early and late postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mass. Furthermore, it was not affected by 5 days of bed-rest, by absence of a normal diurnal variation in cortisol production, or by absence of a normal light cycle (blindness). Nasal salmon calcitonin, an antiresorptive drug used for treatment of osteoporosis, was not able to break the circadian pattern whether the treatment was administered in the morning or the evening. The only parameter that showed a pronounced influence on the circadian variation was fasting, which reduced the variation significantly to about one fourth. From a practical point of view the results of this study demonstrate that samples for sCTx should be taken in the fasting state.