Expression and mutation analysis of BRUNOL3, a candidate gene for heart and thymus developmental defects associated with partial monosomy 10p

J Mol Med (Berl). 2002 Jul;80(7):431-42. doi: 10.1007/s00109-002-0331-9. Epub 2002 Apr 4.


Partial monosomy 10p is a rare chromosomal aberration. Patients often show symptoms of the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome spectrum. The phenotype is the result of haploinsufficiency of at least two regions on 10p, the HDR1 region associated with hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal defects (HDR syndrome) and the more proximal region DGCR2 responsible for heart defects and thymus hypoplasia/aplasia. While GATA3 was identified as the disease causing gene for HDR syndrome, no genes have been identified thus far for the symptoms associated with DGCR2 haploinsufficiency. We constructed a deletion map of partial monosomy 10p patients and narrowed the critical region DGCR2 to about 300 kb. The genomic draft sequence of this region contains only one known gene, BRUNOL3 ( NAPOR, CUGBP2, ETR3). In situ hybridization of human embryos and fetuses revealed as well as in other tissues a strong expression of BRUNOL3 in thymus during different developmental stages. BRUNOL3 appears to be an important factor for thymus development and is therefore a candidate gene for the thymus hypoplasia/aplasia seen in partial monosomy 10p patients. We did not find BRUNOL3 mutations in 92 DiGeorge syndrome-like patients without chromosomal deletions and in 8 parents with congenital heart defect children.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • CELF Proteins
  • Child
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10
  • DiGeorge Syndrome / genetics*
  • Fetal Heart / metabolism
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gestational Age
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / metabolism
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Mutation*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Phenotype
  • Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Thymus Gland / abnormalities*
  • Thymus Gland / embryology
  • Thymus Gland / growth & development
  • Thymus Gland / metabolism


  • CELF Proteins
  • CELF2 protein, human
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex
  • Protein Isoforms
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • adhesion receptor