Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is the most common environmental factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. Exposure of human skin to UVB radiation leads to the depletion of cutaneous antioxidants, the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Although antioxidant supplementation has been shown to prevent UVB-induced photooxidative damage, its effect on components of cell signaling pathways leading to gene expression has not been clearly established. In the present study, the effect of the antioxidant vitamin, alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), and its acetate analog, alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc), on UVB-induced damage in primary and neoplastic mouse keratinocytes was investigated. The ability of both vitamins to modulate UVB-induced apoptosis and activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB were studied. Treatment of normal and neoplastic mouse epidermal keratinocytes (308 cells) with 30-60 mJ/cm(2) UVB markedly decreased viable cell number and was accompanied by DNA fragmentation. When both vitamins were applied to cells at times before and after UVB radiation, a significant increase in the percentage of viable cells and concomitant decrease in the number of apoptotic cells was noted, with vitamin pretreatment providing a better protection than posttreatment. Simultaneous posttreatment of irradiated cells with alpha-TAc abolished the cytotoxic effects of UVB and restored cell viability to control levels. In addition, simultaneous posttreatment of irradiated cells with alpha-T reduced the number of apoptotic cells by half, indicating a synergistic effect of two such treatments compared with any single one. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that vitamin treatment suppressed both an increase in pre-G0 cells and a decrease in cycling cells by UVB exposure. In addition, NF-kappaB activation was detected 2 h after UV exposure and was maintained for up to 8 h. Pretreatment with vitamins significantly inhibited NF-kappaB activation at 4 and 8 h. These results indicate that vitamin E and its acetate analog can modulate the cellular response to UVB partly through their action on NF-kappaB activation. Thus, these antioxidant vitamins are potential drugs for the protection from or the reduction of UVB-associated epidermal damage.
Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.