The Jostent coronary stent graft (CSG) is composed of a PTFE layer sandwiched between two stainless steel stents, initially introduced for the treatment of coronary perforations and aneurysms with excellent results. By providing a mechanical barrier, this stent design also may be beneficial in the treatment of complex ulcerated lesions and in-stent restenosis by preventing debris protrusion and neointimal proliferation through the stent struts. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of this stent graft, we implanted 78 CSGs in 70 patients for a broad range of indications, including coronary perforations, aneurysms, degenerated saphenous vein grafts, complex lesions, and in-stent restenosis. The primary angiographic success rate (95.9%) was high, and using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance during stent implantation and high inflation pressures (19.3 +/- 3.2 atm), stent expansion with optimal symmetry was achieved in 94.7%. One limitation of the Jostent CSG was the side-branch occlusion rate (18.6%) and the resulting non-Q-wave infarction rate in seven cases (mean CK elevation, 238 U/l), acute Q-wave MI in two cases, and transient ventricular fibrillation in one patient after occlusion of the proximal RCA side branch without further complications. Subacute stent thrombosis occurred in four cases (5.7%) 7 to 70 days after stent implantation, despite using combined antiplatelet therapy with aspirin (ASA), ticlopidine, and/or clopidogrel for 30 days. Angiographic follow-up was available in 56 patients (80.0%) after a mean of 159 +/- 49 days, and follow-up IVUS was available in 38 cases. The overall restenosis rate (> 50% diameter stenosis) was 31.6% manifest primarily as edge restenosis (29.8% stent edge vs. 8.8% stent center; P < 0.001). IVUS examinations showed a minimal late lumen loss of 0.4 +/- 2.2 mm(2) within the center of the stent graft vs. 3.2 +/- 2.3 mm(2) at the stent edges (P < 0.001). The restenosis rate in the prespecified subgroups was 33.3% for saphenous vein grafts (2/6 lesions), 30.0% in complex lesions (6/20 lesions), and 38.5% (10/26 lesions) for the treatment of in-stent restenosis. Implantation of the Jostent CSG is feasible and safe, even in complex lesion subsets, and is associated with high primary success rates provided major side branches are avoided. The use of this stent may require an extended time course of antiplatelet therapy. Frequent focal stent edge renarrowing influences the overall restenosis rate. However, in treatment of complex in-stent restenosis and vein graft lesions, stent grafts may offer benefit over conventional therapies. Covered stents such as the JoMed coronary stent graft may become essential for bailout treatment of coronary perforations.
Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.