Determination of pesticide residues in coconut water by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography with electron-capture plus thermionic specific detection and solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection

J Chromatogr A. 2002 May 31;957(2):201-9. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9673(02)00351-5.


Two simple methods were developed to determine 11 pesticides in coconut water, a natural isotonic drink rich in salts, sugars and vitamins consumed by the people and athletes. The first procedure involves solid-phase extraction using Sep-Pak Vac C18 disposable cartridges with methanol for elution. Isocratic analysis was carried out by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 254 nm to analyse captan, chlorothalonil, carbendazim, lufenuron and diafenthiuron. The other procedure is based on liquid-liquid extraction with hexane-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v), followed by gas chromatographic analysis with effluent splitting to electron-capture detection for determination of endosulfan, captan, tetradifon and trichlorfon and thermionic specific detection for determination of malathion, parathion-methyl and monocrotophos. The methods were validated with fortified samples at different concentration levels (0.01-12.0 mg/kg). Average recoveries ranged from 75 to 104% with relative standard deviations between 1.4 and 11.5%. Each recovery analysis was repeated at least five times. Limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 2.0 mg/kg. The analytical procedures were applied to 15 samples and no detectable amounts of the pesticides were found in any samples under the conditions described.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Gas / methods*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Cocos / chemistry*
  • Pesticide Residues / analysis*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet / methods*


  • Pesticide Residues