With the use of an antiserum against human apelin-36, apelin-immunoreactivity (irAP) was detected in neurons and cell processes of the supraoptic nucleus (SO), paraventricular nucleus (PVH), accessory neurosecretory nuclei (Acc) and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Strongly labeled cells/processes were noted in the internal layer of the median eminence, infundibular stem, anterior and posterior pituitary. Double-labeling the sections with goat polyclonal neurophysin I-antiserum and rabbit polyclonal apelin-antiserum revealed a population of magnocellular neurons in the PVH, SO and Acc expressing both irAP and neurophysin I-immunoreactivity (irNP), the latter being a marker of oxytocin-containing neurons. By inference, the AP-positive but irNP-negative magnocellular neurons could be vasopressin-containing. The presence of irAP in certain hypothalamic nuclei and pituitary suggests that the peptide may be a signaling molecule released from the hypothalamic-hypophysial axis.