Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from surgical specimens of 25 pituitary adenomas was screened for the presence of mutations in the tumor suppressor gene retinoblastoma gene, using polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, followed by direct deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing. Mutation causing an amino acid change was found in one of the 25 pituitary adenomas. The mutation site was in exon 19 (codon 621) of the retinoblastoma gene. In addition, there were three types of silent mutations in introns of the gene. The patient in whom the retinoblastoma mutation was identified had a tumor with high clinical malignancy, a high percentage of c-myc protein-labeled cells, and a diagnosis of plurihormonal pituitary adenoma based on the presence of cells immunoreactive for five pituitary hormones. This article suggests that point mutation of retinoblastoma gene is rare in human pituitary adenomas but may provide a marker for aggressive pituitary adenoma.