The biosynthetic gene cluster of the aminocoumarin antibiotic simocyclinone D8 was cloned by screening a cosmid library of Streptomyces antibioticusTü 6040 with a heterologous probe from a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin. Sequence analysis of a 39.4-kb region revealed the presence of 38 ORFs. Six of the identified ORFs showed striking similarity to genes from the biosynthetic gene clusters of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin and coumermycin A(1). Simocyclinone also contains an angucyclinone moiety, and 12 of the ORFs showed high sequence similarity to biosynthetic genes of other angucyclinone antibiotics. Possible functions within the biosynthesis of simocyclinone D8 could be assigned to 23 ORFs by comparison with sequences in GenBank. Experimental proof for the function of the identified gene cluster was provided by a gene inactivation experiment, which resulted in the abolishment of the formation of the aminocoumarin moiety of simocyclinone. Feeding of the mutant with the aminocoumarin moiety of novobiocin led to a new, artificial simocyclinone derivative.