Expression analysis of delta-catenin and prostate-specific membrane antigen: their potential as diagnostic markers for prostate cancer

Int J Cancer. 2002 Jul 10;100(2):228-37. doi: 10.1002/ijc.10468.


The current approach to prostate cancer diagnosis has major limitations including the inability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays to accurately differentiate between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and the imprecision of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy sampling. We have employed cDNA microarray screening to compare gene expression patterns in BPH and tumour samples to identify expression markers that may be useful in discriminating between these conditions. Screening of 3 individual cDNA arrays identified 8 genes with expression 3-fold greater in 6 tumour tissues than in 1 nontumour sample and 1 BPH sample. Real-time PCR was used to confirm the overexpression of these 8 genes and 12 genes selected from the literature against a panel of 17 tumours and 11 BPH samples. Two genes, delta-catenin (delta-catenin; CTNND2) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA; FOLH1), were significantly overexpressed in prostate cancer compared to BPH. Prostate epithelial cells stained positively for delta-catenin and PSMA in our prostate cancer tissues, whereas the majority of our BPH tissues were negative for both markers. Thus we have identified delta-catenin (not previously associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma) and confirmed the potential of PSMA as potential candidates for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics*
  • Antigens, Surface*
  • Armadillo Domain Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor*
  • Carboxypeptidases / genetics*
  • Catenins
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA Primers / chemistry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / genetics*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / surgery
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Antigens, Surface
  • Armadillo Domain Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Catenins
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • DNA Primers
  • Phosphoproteins
  • delta catenin
  • Carboxypeptidases
  • FOLH1 protein, human
  • Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen