We investigated the possible differences between the concentrations of selenium in the whole blood and thyroid tissue of patients with thyroid disease. The study comprises 41 women with nodular goiter, 19 women and 2 men with thyroid cancer, 18 women with Graves' disease, and 7 women with thyroiditis. The concentration of selenium was determined by the TRXRF method. The lowest mean selenium level was achieved in the whole blood of women with Graves' disease and the highest in the whole blood of healthy people. In the thyroid cancer tissue, we found the lowest concentration of selenium and the highest in the thyroid gland of women with nodular goiter and Graves' disease. The low selenium levels in the thyroid tissue may increase thyroid cancer risk.