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, 32 (9), 1155-62

Excretory/secretory Products From Plerocercoids of Spirometra Erinaceieuropaei Suppress the TNF-alpha Gene Expression by Reducing Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in Macrophages

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Excretory/secretory Products From Plerocercoids of Spirometra Erinaceieuropaei Suppress the TNF-alpha Gene Expression by Reducing Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in Macrophages

Paramasari Dirgahayu et al. Int J Parasitol.

Abstract

We previously reported that excretory/secretory products from plerocercoids of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei suppress gene expression and production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of tumour necrosis factor-alpha mRNA by excretory/secretory products in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and supershift assay revealed that neither nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B nor conformation of the p50/p65 nuclear factor-kappa B subunits was affected by the treatment of excretory/secretory products in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 with PD98059 or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase with SB203580 partially reduced tumour necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression, and a combination of the two inhibitors additionally suppressed the level of tumour necrosis factor-alpha mRNA, revealing that both pathways are crucial for full induction of the gene. Northern blot analysis showed that excretory/secretory products additionally suppressed tumour necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression in cells treated with PD98059 or SB208530 and, in turn, we found that excretory/secretory products reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by Western blot analysis. This is the first report demonstrating that excretory/secretory products from parasites suppress tumour necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression by reducing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase without any effect on nuclear factor-kappa B activity in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. We hypothesise that excretory/secretory products may enable this parasite to survive within the host.

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