In this review, recent advances in DNA microarray technology and their applications are examined. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. This includes both high-density microarrays for high-throughput screening applications and lower-density microarrays for various diagnostic applications. The methods for microarray fabrication that are reviewed include various inkjet and microjet deposition or spotting technologies and processes, in situ or on-chip photolithographic oligonucleotide synthesis processes, and electronic DNA probe addressing processes. The DNA microarray hybridization applications reviewed include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and short tandem repeats (STRs). In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes. Additionally, microarray technology being developed and applied to new areas of proteomic and cellular analysis are reviewed.