Proteomics is a rapidly emerging set of key technologies that are being used to identify proteins and map their interactions in a cellular context. With the sequencing of the human genome, the scope of proteomics has shifted from protein identification and characterization to include protein structure, function and protein-protein interactions. Technologies used in proteomic research include two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrids screens, and computational prediction programs. While some of these technologies have been in use for a long time, they are currently being applied to study physiology and cellular processes in high-throughput formats. It is the high-throughput approach that defines and characterizes modern proteomics. In this review, we discuss the current status of these experimental and computational technologies relevant to the three major aspects of proteomics-characterization of proteomes, identification of proteins, and determination of protein function. We also briefly discuss the development of new proteomic technologies that are based on recent advances in analytical and biochemical techniques, engineering, microfabrication, and computational prowess. The integration of these advances with established technologies is invaluable for the drive toward a comprehensive understanding of protein structure and function in the cellular milieu.