Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a mesenchymal tumor that has been increasingly recognized over the past few years. The tumor was initially described in the pleura, but it has been reported in many other sites lately. Although the majority of these tumors have a benign course, the malignant form still remains enigmatic. Indeed, the behavior of these tumors is often unpredictable and does not always correlate with histologic findings. In addition, benign tumors may remain unproblematic for several years before changing into a malignant form. In order to define more precisely the clinical behavior of solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura, we reviewed the literature with particular attention to the clinical presentation, histopathologic characteristics, and cytogenetic differentiation of these tumors. A staging system and an algorithm for the management and follow-up of these patients are proposed.