Presentation of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) ranges from severe renal impairment and a high mortality rate in infancy to older children and adolescents with minimal renal disease and complications of congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF), cholangitis and portal hypertension. Renal transplantation improves prognosis but it is unclear whether CHF in transplanted children follows the same clinical course as in older children with less severe renal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate morbidity from CHF in ARPKD post renal transplantation. Data were analyzed for six males and eight females, transplanted for ARPKD (mean age 8.3 years, range 1-22.3 years) at the University of Minnesota between 1972 and 1998. Follow-up was for a mean of 14.5 years (range 3.1-33.6 years). One and 5 years patient survival rates were 93% and 86%, respectively. Overall five patients (36%) died; 4/5 deaths were related to CHF. Causes of death were hepatic failure immediately post transplant (n = 1), septicemia related to bile duct dilatation (n = 3) and multiorgan failure (n = 1). One and 5years graft survival rates were 87% and 70%, respectively. One patient had a combined liver-kidney transplant and two were re-transplanted. Initial signs of CHF were splenomegaly (n = 5), hepatosplenomegaly (n = 4) and gastrointestinal bleed (n = 2). Progression of CHF through childhood included hypersplenism (n = 7), esophageal varices with gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 5) and bile duct dilatation (n = 5). Portal hypertension was treated with portosystemic shunt (n = 3), sclerotherapy (n = 2), banding of varices (n = 1) and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (n = 1). Of the nine survivors (mean age 12.8 years) 78% have functioning grafts (one liver-kidney transplant), 63% have portal hypertension and 22% have asymptomatic biliary dilatation. Complications of CHF developed in 79% of children who received a renal transplant for ARPKD. Mortality related to CHF occurred in 29% and accounted for 80% (4/5) of the deaths.