Lymphocyte activation initiates a program of cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation that increases metabolic demand. Although T cells increase glucose uptake and glycolysis during an immune response, the signaling pathways that regulate these increases remain largely unknown. Here we show that CD28 costimulation, acting through phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, is required for T cells to increase their glycolytic rate in response to activation. Furthermore, CD28 controls a primary response pathway, inducing a level of glucose uptake and glycolysis in excess of that needed to maintain cellular ATP/ADP levels or macromolecular synthesis. These data suggest that CD28 costimulation functions to increase glycolytic flux, allowing T cells to anticipate energetic and biosynthetic needs associated with a sustained response.