Interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines are multifunctional proteins involved in cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial protection. Recent studies, performed on animal models, report the production of these cytokines by heart. The aim of this study was to analyse the capacity of myocytes and fibroblasts isolated from human atrium to secrete IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), IL-11, oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and the soluble receptor subunits sIL-6R and sgp130 during primary culture. We detected LIF, IL-11, sgp130 and a large amount of IL-6, but not OSM, CT-1, CNTF nor IL-6R in these culture supernatants. Both cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts are able to spontaneously produce IL-6. The increase of IL-6 production all along the culture period appears to be the consequence of fibroblast proliferation and gp130 stimulation. This is the first demonstration that human cardiac cells are able to secrete IL-6, but also LIF and IL-11 in vitro. These cytokines could be involved in an autocrine and/or a paracrine networks regulating myocardial cyto-protection, hypertrophy and fibrosis.