Risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in Type 2 diabetes: results of longitudinal study design

J Diabetes Complications. Jul-Aug 2002;16(4):271-6. doi: 10.1016/s1056-8727(01)00184-2.


Type 2 diabetes is associated with the increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for the development of long-term complications of Type 2 diabetes. We analyzed medical records of all patients, who came with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes to one regional outpatient diabetes clinic from 1980 to 1994 (n=2175). The data, such as fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI), were assessed. Also, the time from the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes to the occurrence of complications was obtained. Using the regression model in the survival analysis, we examined which of the risk factors determined the rate of the development of nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients with higher fasting plasma glucose and higher mean blood pressure had higher risk of developing nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy. Higher mean arterial blood pressure was associated with higher rate of stroke and cardiovascular disease. High total cholesterol increased the hazard of coronary artery disease and proliferative retinopathy. In conclusion, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose are major risk factors for microvascular complications in Type 2 diabetes. An increased blood pressure determined the macrovascular complications in Type 2 diabetes, but the effect of increased fasting plasma glucose could not be proved.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Regression Analysis
  • Research Design
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke / epidemiology
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Triglycerides
  • Cholesterol