Effect of gamma irradiation on human cortical bone transplants contaminated with enveloped and non-enveloped viruses

Biologicals. 2002 Jun;30(2):125-33. doi: 10.1006/biol.2002.0326.


In the production of bone grafts intended for transplantation, basic safety measures to avoid the transmission of pathogens are selection and serological screening of donors for markers of virus infections. As an additional safety tool we investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on the sterility of human bone diaphysis transplants and evaluated its impact on the virus safety of transplants. Model viruses were included in the study to determine the dose necessary to achieve a reduction factor for the infectivity titres of at least 4 log(10) at a temperature of -30+/-5 degrees C. The following viruses were used: human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and poliovirus (PV-1), and the following model viruses: pseudorabies virus (PRV) as a model for human herpesviruses, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) for HCV, and bovine parvovirus (BPV) for parvovirus B19. A first approach was to determine the D(10) values (kGy) for the different viruses (virus inactivation kinetics: BPV 7.3; PV-1 7.1; HIV-2 7.1; HAV 5.3; PRV 5.3; BVDV <3.0 kGy). Based on these results, inactivation of these viruses was studied in experimentally contaminated human bone transplants (femoral diaphyses). For BPV, the most resistant one of the viruses studied, a dose of approximately 34 kGy was necessary to achieve a reduction of infectivity titres of 4 log(10). We therefore recommend a dose of 34 kGy for the sterilisation of frozen bone transplants.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Transplantation / methods*
  • Bone and Bones / virology*
  • Cattle
  • Cell Line
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
  • Gamma Rays*
  • HIV
  • HIV-2 / radiation effects*
  • Hepatitis A virus / radiation effects*
  • Herpesvirus 1, Suid / radiation effects
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Parvovirus / radiation effects
  • Poliovirus / radiation effects*
  • Temperature
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured