Previous studies showed that chronic electroconvulsive shock (ECS) or imipramine treatment induced a subsensitivity of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) in hippocampus. In the present study effects of antidepressant treatment on the expression of mGluR1a and mGluR5a, belonging to the group I mGluR, were investigated in rat brain hippocampus using immunohistochemical and Western blot methods, respectively. Male Wistar rats were treated singly or chronically for 21 days with imipramine, 10 mg/kg, twice daily; with ECS (90 mA, 50 Hz, 0.5 s) every second day; or with haloperidol, 1.2 mg/kg, once daily. Appropriate controls were injected with saline. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last treatment and their hippocampi were taken out for analysis. It was found that the mGluR1a-immunoreactivity expression increased significantly in Ammon's horn (CA) regions after chronic ECS. The most pronounced effect was observed in the CA3. No significant effects were found after single treatment or after haloperidol. The expression of mGluR5a increased significantly after chronic imipramine in the CA1 and after chronic ECS in the CA3 region. The results obtained indicate an influence of antidepressant treatment on group I mGluR. This increase in the receptor protein level may be a compensatory mechanism developing after chronic treatment.