Purpose: This article reports an unusual presentation of bowel perforation.
Methods: We report the case of a 30-year-old HIV-infected male who suffered from an advanced state of CD4 cell depletion (29 CD4 cells per 106/l). Abdominal pain and diarrhea led to further examinations.
Results: Colonoscopy revealed a severe tuberculous ileocecal inflammation. Tuberculosis and HIV infection were treated. The patient's response to antiretroviral therapy was excellent. After 11 months of potent antiretroviral treatment and 12 months of antituberculous therapy he suffered from acute abdominal pain with fever and ileus. Laparotomy revealed two intestinal perforations of the jejunum and inflammation of the whole ileocecal region.
Conclusion: Immunopathologic reactions caused by immune restoration are novel presentations of highly active antiretroviral treatment as shown here. The presented patient is an unusual case with a very late onset of inflammatory response, which led to intestinal perforation.