The biosynthetic sorting of hydrolases to the yeast vacuole involves transport along two distinct routes referred to as the carboxypeptidase Y and alkaline phosphatase pathways. To identify genes involved in sorting to the vacuole, we conducted a genome-wide screen of 4653 homozygous diploid gene deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for missorting of carboxypeptidase Y. We identified 146 mutant strains that secreted strong-to-moderate levels of carboxypeptidase Y. Of these, only 53 of the corresponding genes had been previously implicated in vacuolar protein sorting, whereas the remaining 93 had either been identified in screens for other cellular processes or were only known as hypothetical open reading frames. Among these 93 were genes encoding: 1) the Ras-like GTP-binding proteins Arl1p and Arl3p, 2) actin-related proteins such as Arp5p and Arp6p, 3) the monensin and brefeldin A hypersensitivity proteins Mon1p and Mon2p, and 4) 15 novel proteins designated Vps61p-Vps75p. Most of the novel gene products were involved only in the carboxypeptidase Y pathway, whereas a few, including Mon1p, Mon2p, Vps61p, and Vps67p, appeared to be involved in both the carboxypeptidase Y and alkaline phosphatase pathways. Mutants lacking some of the novel gene products, including Arp5p, Arp6p, Vps64p, and Vps67p, were severely defective in secretion of mature alpha-factor. Others, such as Vps61p, Vps64p, and Vps67p, displayed defects in the actin cytoskeleton at 30 degrees C. The identification and phenotypic characterization of these novel mutants provide new insights into the mechanisms of vacuolar protein sorting, most notably the probable involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in this process.