Aims/hypothesis: We hypothesized that apolipoprotein A-II sequence variation was responsible for the observed linkage of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus to the apolipoprotein A-II region in Northern European families ascertained for multiple diabetic siblings, and might also influence insulin sensitivity and secretion, non-esterified fatty acids, and lipids.
Methods: We recruited 698 members of 63 families for pedigree studies and additional unrelated people providing 117 diabetic and 130 control subjects. We screened the apolipoprotein A-II gene by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and fluorescent sequence analysis. Variants were typed by oligonucleotide ligation assay, restriction digest of amplification products, or radioactive fragment analysis for the microsatellite polymorphism. Association of each variant with Type II diabetes was tested in the case-control population by chi-square analysis, or using transmission disequilibrium test in families. Haplotypes were established in families using SIMWALK and tested for association with diabetes and quantitative traits.
Results: No detected variant altered the coding sequence of the gene. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms showed modest evidence for an association, but no variant or haplotype was associated with diabetes in families. Similarly, we found no association with non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, HDL concentrations, or fasting insulin. In contrast, we found evidence for an association of some haplotypes and individual variants with 2-h post-challenge glucose and measures of insulin secretion.
Conclusion/interpretation: Apolipoprotein A-II is not likely to explain the observed linkage of Type II diabetes, but variation in this gene could alter insulin secretion and post-challenge glucose.