Cloning and characterization of Streptomyces galilaeus aclacinomycins polyketide synthase (PKS) cluster

Gene. 2002 Jun 26;293(1-2):115-22. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(02)00699-6.


We have cloned and sequenced polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from the aclacinomycin producer Streptomyces galilaeus ATCC 31,615. The sequenced 13.5-kb region contained 13 complete genes. Their organization as well as their protein sequences showed high similarity to those of other type II PKS genes. The continuous region included the genes for the minimal PKS, consisting of ketosynthase I (aknB), ketosynthase II (aknC), and acyl carrier protein (aknD). These were followed by the daunomycin dpsC and dpsD homologues (aknE2 and F, respectively), which are rare in type II PKS clusters. They are associated with the unusual starter unit, propionate, used in the biosynthesis of aklavinone, a common precursor of aclacinomycin and daunomycin. Accordingly, when aclacinomycins minimal PKS genes were substituted for those of nogalamycin in the plasmid carrying genes for auramycinone biosynthesis, aklavinone was produced in the heterologous hosts. In addition to the minimal PKS, the cloned region included the PKS genes for polyketide ketoreductase (aknA), aromatase (aknE1) and oxygenase (aknX), as well as genes putatively encoding an aklanonic acid methyl transferase (aknG) and an aklanonic acid methyl ester cyclase (aknH) for post-polyketide steps were found. Moreover, the region carried genes for an activator (aknI), a glycosyl transferase (aknK) and an epimerase (aknL) taking part in deoxysugar biosynthesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aclarubicin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Aclarubicin / biosynthesis*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Genes, Bacterial / genetics
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Multienzyme Complexes / genetics*
  • Multigene Family / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Naphthacenes / metabolism
  • Plasmids / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Streptomyces / enzymology
  • Streptomyces / genetics*
  • Streptomyces / metabolism


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Multienzyme Complexes
  • Naphthacenes
  • aclacinomycins
  • aklavinone
  • Aclarubicin