Macrophages have various functions and play a critical role in host defense and the maintenance of homeostasis. However, macrophages are heterogeneous and exhibit a wide range of phenotypes with regard to their morphology, cell surface antigen expression, and function. When blood monocytes are cultured in medium alone in vitro, monocytes die, and colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) such as macrophage (M)-CSF or granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF are necessary for their survival and differentiation into macrophages. However, M-CSF-induced monocyte-derived macrophages (M-Mphi) and GM-CSF-induced monocyte-derived macrophages (GM-Mphi) are distinct in their morphology, cell surface antigen expression, and functions, including Fcgamma receptor mediated-phagocytosis, H2O2 production, H2O2 sensitivity, catalase activity, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and suppressor activity. The characteristics of GM-Mphi resemble those of human alveolar macrophages.