Divergent regulation of the HEMA gene family encoding glutamyl-tRNA reductase in Arabidopsis thaliana: expression of HEMA2 is regulated by sugars, but is independent of light and plastid signalling

Plant Mol Biol. 2002 Sep;50(1):83-91. doi: 10.1023/a:1016081114758.


The synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a key regulatory step for the production of hemes and chlorophyll via the tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway. The first enzyme committed to ALA synthesis is glutamyl-tRNA reductase encoded in Arabidopsis by a small family of nuclear-encoded HEMA genes. To better understand the regulation of the tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway we have made a detailed study of HEMA2 expression with transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L. Col. plants carrying chimeric HEMA2 promoter:gusA fusion constructs. Our results show that the HEMA2 promoter directs expression predominantly to roots and flowers, but that HEMA2 is also expressed at low levels in photosynthetic tissues. Deletion analysis of the HEMA2 promoter indicates that a ca. 850 bp fragment immediately upstream of the HEMA2 coding region is sufficient to drive regulated gusA expression. In contrast to HEMA1, HEMA2 is not up-regulated by red, far-red, blue, UV or white light. In addition, elimination of a promotive plastid signal by Norflurazon-induced photobleaching of plastids had no effect on HEMA2 expression while being required for normal white-light induction of HEMA1. HEMA2 expression in the cotyledons is inhibited by the presence of sucrose or glucose, but not fructose, and this response is light-independent. HEMA1 expression in cotyledons is also inhibited by sugars, but in a strictly light-dependent manner. The roles of HEMA1 and HEMA2 in meeting cellular tetrapyrrole requirements are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / enzymology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Carbohydrates / pharmacology
  • DNA, Plant / genetics
  • Fructose / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects
  • Glucose / pharmacology
  • Glucuronidase / genetics
  • Glucuronidase / metabolism
  • Light
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Plastids / physiology
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / drug effects
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sucrose / pharmacology


  • Carbohydrates
  • DNA, Plant
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Fructose
  • Sucrose
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases
  • glutamyl tRNA reductase
  • Glucuronidase
  • Glucose