Staphylococcus aureus is a cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections. In 1996, the first clinical isolate of S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin was reported from Japan. The vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) result reported for this isolate was in the intermediate range (vancomycin MIC=8 microg/mL) using interpretive criteria defined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. As of June 2002, eight patients with clinical infections caused by vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) have been confirmed in the United States. This report describes the first documented case of infection caused by vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) (vancomycin MIC > or = 32 microg/mL) in a patient in the United States. The emergence of VRSA underscores the need for programs to prevent the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms and control the use of antimicrobial drugs in health-care settings.