The rapid emergence (from 0% before 1998 to 6.5% in 2000) of pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (PDRAB) was noted in a university hospital in Taiwan. To understand the epidemiology of these isolates, we studied 203 PDRAB isolates, taken from January 1999 to April 2000: 199 from 73 hospitalized patients treated at different clinical settings in the hospital and 4 from environmental sites in an intensive-care unit. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) generated by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction of these 203 isolates showed 10 closely related genotypes (10 clones). One (clone 5), belonging to pulsotype E and RAPD pattern 5, predominated (64 isolates, mostly from patients in intensive care). Increasing use of carbapenems and ciprofloxacin (selective pressure) as well as clonal dissemination might have contributed to the wide spread of PDRAB in this hospital.