Objective: To compare the effects of repaglinide, glipizide, and glibenclamide on insulin secretion and postprandial glucose after a single standard 500-kcal test meal.
Research design and methods: A total of 12 type 2 diabetic patients with early diabetes (mean HbA(1c) of 6.1%) and 12 matched control subjects were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects received placebo, 2 mg repaglinide, 5 mg glipizide, and 5 mg glibenclamide in a random fashion during the trial. Administration of each drug was followed by a single standard 500-kcal test meal. A washout period of 7-12 days existed between the four study visits.
Results: All three drugs were equally effective on the total prandial insulin secretion (area under the curve [AUC] -15 to 240 min). However, clear differences were noted in the early insulin secretion (AUC -15 to 30 min); both repaglinide and glipizide increased secretion in nondiabetic subjects by approximately 61 and 34%, respectively, compared with placebo. In the diabetic patients, the difference versus placebo was 37 and 47%, respectively. The difference between glipizide and glibenclamide reached significance in both groups of subjects, whereas repaglinide was more effective than glibenclamide only in the healthy nondiabetic subject group. All three drugs were effective in decreasing total glucose AUC in the nondiabetic and diabetic population. In the nondiabetic subjects, however, repaglinide was significantly more effective than glibenclamide. The differences disappeared in the diabetic subjects, probably as a result of increased prevalence of insulin resistance in this group.
Conclusions: Repaglinide and glipizide but not glibenclamide significantly enhanced the early insulin secretion in both nondiabetic and diabetic subjects with preserved beta-cell function after a single standard meal.