Objective: The present experiments were performed to ascertain whether or not all plasma components are extravasated when vascular permeability is increased.
Animals: Male Sprague-Dawley strain rats (specific pathogen-free) 8 weeks old (for histamine exudation) or 9-10 weeks old (for carrageenin pleurisy) were used.
Methods: Histamine or A-carrageenin was injected into the rat right pleural cavity to induce rat pleurisy. Protein components in the inflammatory exudate and plasma were separated by high performance liquid chromatography. Coagulation time was assessed, and the fibrinogen levels in the pleural exudate were determined by thrombin time. The fibrinogen levels were also visualized by immunoblot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 0.4 microg/rat, intrapleurally), anti-rat CD18 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD18 antibody, 1 mg/kg, i. v.) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, 100 microg/kg, s.c. twice daily for 4 days) were used.
Results: In the histamine-induced extravasation, the level of plasma protein components with large molecules over 900 kD in the exudate was 62% of that in the rat's own plasma. The amount of fibrinogen in the pleural exudate was 1/8 of that in the plasma and was faintly detected in immunoblot analysis, but it was clearly detected after the treatment of rats with TNF-alpha. In rat carrageenin pleurisy, fibrinogen was hardly detected in immunoblot analysis in the exudate collected 0.5 h after carrageenin, when neutrophils did not migrate into the exudate. However, it was clearly present after neutrophil migration started 2 h later The increase in the neutrophil counts in the exudate caused by G-CSF enhanced the fibrinogen level in the exudate, whereas intravenous injection of anti-CD18 antibody suppressed the fibrinogen level in immunoblot analysis.
Conclusions: Venular permeability increase in the rat histamine exudation induced minimal extravasation of plasma proteins with large molecules, such as fibrinogen, while fibrinogen molecule was detected in rat carrageenin-injected pleurisy, when neutrophil diapedesis occurred. Thus, only when neutrophils started to migrate into the perivascular space was fibrinogen clearly detected in the exudate.