An unknown, strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium (strain MOL361T) was isolated from a blood culture of a febrile patient with acute appendicitis and characterized using phenotypic and molecular methods. Fatty acid analysis and biochemical examination indicated that the isolate most closely resembles members of the Gram-positive bacteria with low DNA G+C content. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed a relatively high overall similarity (97%) to an uncultured bacterium, but these two strains both exhibit low (<87%) 16S rDNA similarity to other bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis with different treeing methods showed that this strain forms a novel line of descent within the Gram-positive bacteria with low G+C content. Strain MOL361T is described as the type strain of a novel species within a new genus, Turicibacter sanguinis gen. nov., sp. nov.