Over the past two decades a number of endogenous compounds that act as ligands for the cannabinoid receptors has been discovered. In analogy with the "endorphins" these compounds have been called "endocannabinoids". Endocannabinoids have been demonstrated in many mammalian tissues including humans and are widely distributed in the CNS, peripheral nerves, uterus, leukocytes, spleen and testicles. The uterus contains the highest levels of anandamide, the first discovered endocannabinoid, suggesting an important role for this substance in reproduction. Several studies have shown anandamide to be involved in the regulation of implantation and reduced activity of the enzyme that degrades anandamide has been associated with early pregnancy loss in humans. The bulk of the literature concerning endocannabinoids is based upon anandamide related studies; therefore, in this review we focus on the metabolism of anandamide and its role in reproduction.