3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) induces a G(1) cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells that is accompanied by Sp1-mediated activation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression

Carcinogenesis. 2002 Aug;23(8):1297-305. doi: 10.1093/carcin/23.8.1297.


3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a promising cancer chemopreventive agent derived from Brassica food plants. To determine whether this natural indole has a direct growth inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells, we examined the cell cycle regulatory effects of DIM in estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) and estrogen-independent (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. Results of flow cytometry studies showed that DIM treatment produced a marked increase (from 51 to 79%) in the proportion of cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, regardless of estrogen-receptor status. Analyses of G(1)-acting cell cycle components indicated that the enzymatic activity of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 was also strongly reduced. Western blot analyses showed that, concurrent with the DIM-induced cell cycle arrest, DIM stimulated a rapid and pronounced increase in levels of the CDK inhibitor, p21(WAF1/CIP1) (p21). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that DIM increased p21 mRNA expression with a maximal 6-7-fold induction, and exposure to cycloheximide did not block the response. Similar increases in expression of p21 protein and mRNA were observed in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, suggesting that DIM induction of p21 expression is independent of estrogen-receptor signaling and p53. Transient transfection of 5'-deletion constructs of the p21 promoter demonstrated that the first 291 bp segment of the proximal promoter, which contains six promoter specific transcription factor 1 (Sp1) elements, maintained DIM responsiveness. Consistent with a role for Sp1 in this response, a reporter construct driven by three consensus Sp1 binding sites was responsive to DIM. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that DIM induced the binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to the consensus Sp1 responsive element. Thus, our observations have uncovered an antiproliferative pathway for DIM that implicates Sp1/Sp3-induced expression of p21 as a target for cell cycle control in human breast cancer cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Breast Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • CDC2-CDC28 Kinases*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism
  • Cyclins / genetics*
  • Cyclins / metabolism
  • DNA Primers
  • G1 Phase / drug effects*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Indoles / pharmacology*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor / physiology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • CDKN1A protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins
  • DNA Primers
  • Indoles
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • CDC2-CDC28 Kinases
  • CDK2 protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  • 3,3'-diindolylmethane