Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have numerous adverse health consequences for the developing fetus, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol-related effects, and therefore is a significant public health problem. A variety of programs have been developed to prevent drinking during pregnancy and the resulting health problems. Some of these efforts, such as public service announcements and beverage warning labels, are universal and strive to increase the public's knowledge about FAS. Selective prevention approaches target women of reproductive age who drink alcohol. Such approaches may involve screening all pregnant women for alcohol consumption and counseling those women who do drink. Indicated prevention approaches target high-risk women (e.g., women who have previously abused alcohol or have had a child with FAS or other alcohol-related effects) and typically offer repeated counseling over several years. Both selective and indicated prevention efforts can reduce maternal alcohol consumption and improve the outcome of the offspring.