The objectives are to investigate the peculiarities of the ultrasound pulse propagation through human extra/intracranial media by mathematical simulation and to confirm the simulation results experimentally by proving the suitability of the ultrasonic time-of-flight measurement method for human intracranial media (IM) physiological non-invasive monitoring. The mathematical model of ultrasound pulse propagation through the human extra/intracranial media is described. The simulation of various physiological phenomena were performed to determine the relationship between the characteristics of the transmitted ultrasound pulse through the human head and the acoustic properties of the IM. It is shown that non-invasive monitoring of the IM acoustic properties is possible by measuring the changes of the ultrasonic signal time-of-flight and the oscillation period. The influence made by variations in acoustic parameters of the external tissue/skull bones on the non-invasive measurement data is investigated and methods of compensation of that influence are presented. The models were applied for developing of a new non-invasive sonographic intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor (Vittamed). Comparative studies of this monitor with the invasive ICP monitor (Camino) have shown the possibility of achieving clinically acceptable accuracy of the long term non-invasive ICP monitoring of head injured patients in intensive care units.