Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures that can be used for case-finding according to the recent guidelines from the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement (CBO) include: a vertebral fracture, a fracture past the age of 50, a positive family history, low body weight, severe immobility and the use of corticosteroids. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) is only recommended for case-finding and not for population screening. Measurement of the BMD is advised in women > or = 50 years of age with a fracture, women with a vertebral fracture regardless of age, women > or = 60 years of age with three of the following risk factors, and women > or = 70 years of age with two of the following risk factors: positive family history, low body weight and severe immobility. Persons with less than 1000-1200 mg calcium in their daily food who are using corticosteroids, persons with osteoporotic fractures and persons who are being treated with drugs for osteoporosis are eligible for calcium supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for persons who do not come outdoors. For the drug treatment of osteoporosis in the first years after menopause, oestrogens, tibolone and raloxifene may be used. It is recommended that postmenopausal women with one or more osteoporotic vertebral fractures or an increased risk and a T-score below -2.5 be treated with a bisphosphonate. Patients who are expected to be treated with > or = 15 mg prednisolone equivalent per day for more than 3 months and postmenopausal women and older men (> or = 70) who will be treated with > or = 7.5 mg prednisolone equivalent per day should be started on a bisphosphonate as soon as possible. Other patients who will be treated with > or = 7.5 mg prednisolone equivalent per day should take a bisphosphonate if their Z-score is below -1 or their T-score is below -2.5.