A cross-sectional survey of the entire membership of the Fukuoka Prefecture Medical Association was conducted in 1983 using a self-administered questionnaire. In this investigation the actual prevalence of smoking among physicians and the relationship between their smoking habits and living habits were studied. The study subjects were divided into two groups: those who smoked (1,737 men and 17 women), and those who did not currently smoke (2,267 men and 169 women). It was realized that there were many who were currently non-smokers among women, subjects with a high body mass index, those with heart disease, those without peptic ulcers, those who underwent health check-ups regularly, those accustomed to an early bedtime, those who were not aware of mental stress, those who took regular exercise, those who consumed plenty of fresh vegetables, yellow and green vegetables and fruit, those who did not consume Japanese pickles, coffee.or green tea, and those who drank alcohol only occasionally and only in small amounts. The results of this study suggested the possibility that physicians who were smokers were a group who smoked little and could easily stop smoking. Moreover, non-smoking physicians were found to have a healthier lifestyle than those who smoked. It was considered that, in developing a smoking cessation program for physicians, it is important for them to establish more health-conscious lifestyles.