Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body. A decrease of plasma glutamine concentrations is found in catabolic stress and is related to susceptibility to infections. Glutamine is known to modulate lymphocyte activation; however, little is known about glutamine modulation of cell death of activated human T cells. Using Jurkat T cells, we investigated glutamine modulation of T-cell apoptosis activated by PMA plus ionomycin. We found that glutamine at various concentrations significantly enhanced IL-2 production, cell proliferation, and cell viability of Jurkat T cells. Glutamine also decreased the number of apoptotic cells stimulated with PMA plus ionomycin as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, glutamine down-regulated CD95 and CD95L expression, but up-regulated CD45RO and Bcl-2 expression in activated T cells. Further investigation of CD95-mediated caspase activities revealed that supplementation of glutamine significantly decreased caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities in activated T cells. Since oxidative stress is closely associated with induction of lymphocyte apoptosis, we found that glutamine significantly increased glutathione (GSH), but decreased reactive oxygen species levels in activated T cells. Blockade of intracellular GSH formation enhanced, but exogenous GSH supplementation decreased, activated T-cell apoptosis. Studying normal peripheral lymphoproliferation, we also found that the presence of glutamine increased lymphoproliferation as well as Bcl-2 and CD95 expression; but decreased CD95L and activation-induced T-cell death. Taken together, glutamine appeared to augment lymphoproliferation but suppressed activation-induced T-cell death in both Jurkat T cells and human peripheral T lymphocytes.