This review presents the 2001 update of the human gene map for physical performance and health-related phenotypes. It is based on scientific papers published by the end of 2001. Association studies with candidate genes, genome-wide scans with polymorphic markers, and single gene defects causing exercise intolerance to variable degrees are included. The genes and markers with evidence of association or linkage with a performance or fitness phenotype in sedentary or active people, in adaptation to acute exercise or for training-induced changes are positioned on the genetic map of all autosomes and the X chromosome. Negative studies are reviewed, but a gene or locus must be supported by at least one positive study before being inserted on the map. By the end of 2000, there were 29 loci depicted on the map. The 2001 map includes 71 loci on the autosomes and two on the X chromosome. Among these genes or markers, 24 are from prior publications on exercise intolerance and four relate to other pathologies. Finally, 13 sequence variants in mitochondrial DNA have been shown to influence relevant fitness and performance phenotypes.