The economic payoffs of integrated malaria control in the Zambian copperbelt between 1930 and 1950

Trop Med Int Health. 2002 Aug;7(8):657-77. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00916.x.


It has long been suggested that malaria is delaying the economic development of countries that are most severely affected by the disease. Several studies have documented the economic consequences of malaria at the household level, primarily in communities engaged in subsistence farming. A missing element is the appraisal of the economic impact of malaria on the industrial and service sectors that will probably become the backbone of many developing economies. We estimate the economic effects of integrated malaria control implemented during the colonial period and sustained for 20 years in four copper mining communities of the former Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Integrated malaria control was characterized by strong emphasis on environmental management, while part of the mining communities also benefited from rapid diagnosis and treatment and the use of bednets. The programmes were highly successful as an estimated 14,122 deaths, 517,284 malaria attacks and 942,347 work shift losses were averted. Overall, 127,226 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were averted per 3-year incremental period. The cumulative costs of malaria control interventions were 11,169,472 US dollars (in 1995 US dollars). Because the control programmes were so effective, the mining companies attracted a large reservoir of migrant labourers and sustained healthy work forces. The programmes averted an estimated 796,622 US dollars in direct treatment costs and 5,678,745 US dollars in indirect costs as a result of reduced work absenteeism. Within a few years of programme initiation, Northern Rhodesia became the leading copper producer in Africa, and mining generated the dominant share of national income. Copper production and revenues, which increased dramatically during malaria control interventions, amounted to the equivalent of 7.1 billion US dollars (in 1995 US dollars). Integrated malaria control in copper mining communities was a sound investment. It had payoff for public and occupational health, generally, and without it copper extraction and social and economic development would have been impossible.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absenteeism
  • Animals
  • Copper*
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Disabled Persons / statistics & numerical data
  • Employment
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Malaria / economics*
  • Malaria / epidemiology
  • Malaria / prevention & control*
  • Mining / economics*
  • Mosquito Control / economics*
  • Mosquito Control / methods
  • Program Evaluation
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Zambia / epidemiology


  • Copper